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Think global act local: the dependency of global lithium-ion battery emissions on production location

The pursuit of low-carbon transport has significantly increased demand for lithium-ion batteries. However, the rapid increase in battery manufacturing, without adequate consideration of the carbon emissions associated with their production and material demands, poses the threat of shifting the bulk of emissions upstream. In this article, a life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed to account for the cradle-to-gate carbon footprint of lithium-ion batteries across 26 Chinese provinces, 20 North American locations and 19 countries in Europe and Asia.