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The effect of using alternative binders and second life graphite materials on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery electrodes

Lithium-ion battery anodes were produced and tested using gelatin and sodium alginate (NaAlg) biopolymers, modified with a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Anodes created with these alternative binder systems showed comparable capacities and Coulombic efficiencies to cells assembled using commercial PVDF and CMC/SBR binders. Rate tests of these cells found that DES-NaAlg possessed a higher rate capability than PVDF, showing a greater capacity (∼70 mAh.g−1 higher) when cycled at 1C.